Mining Map – Layer 1
Chemicals and minerals:
Saudi Arabia, Afganistan, and:
|People’s Republic of China||5,200||3,500,000|
Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) is widely used in lithium ion battery cathodes. The material is composed of cobalt oxide layers in which the lithium is intercalated. During discharging the lithium intercalated between the layers is set free as lithium ion. Nickel-cadmium (NiCd) and nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries also contain significant amounts of cobalt; the cobalt improves the oxidation capabilities of nickel in the battery.
The main ores of cobalt are cobaltite, erythrite, glaucodot and skutterudite (see above), but most cobalt is obtained not by active mining of cobalt ores, but rather by reducing cobalt compounds that occur as by-products of nickel and copper mining activities. In 2005, the copper deposits in the Katanga Province (former Shaba province) of the Democratic Republic of the Congo were the top producer of cobalt with almost 40% world share
|Rank||Country/Region||2006 Copper production (tonnes)||2013 Copper production (tonnes)|
|13||Papua New Guinea||194,355|
Photography used 30.98% of the silver consumed in 1998 in the form of silver nitrate and silver halides. In 2001, 23.47% was used for photography, while 20.03% was used in jewelry, 38.51% for industrial uses, and only 3.5% for coins and medals. The use of silver in photography has rapidly declined, due to the lower demand for consumer color film from the advent of digital technology; since 2007, of the 907 million ounces of silver in supply, just 117.6 million ounces (13%) were consumed by the photographic sector, about 50% of the amount used in photography in 1998. By 2010, the supply had increased by about 10% to 1056.8 million ounces, of which 72.7 million ounces were used in the photographic sector, a decline of 38% compared with 2007.
Some electrical and electronic products use silver for its superior conductivity, even when tarnished. The primary example of this is in high quality RF connectors. The increase in conductivity is also taken advantage of in RF engineering at VHF and higher frequencies, where conductors often cannot be scaled by 6%, due to tuning requirements, e.g. cavity filters. As an additional example, printed circuits and RFID antennas can be made using silver paints, and computer keyboards use silver electrical contacts. Silver cadmium oxide is used in high-voltage contacts because it can withstand arcing.
Some manufacturers produce audio connector cables, speaker wires, and power cables using silver conductors, which have a 6% higher conductivity than ordinary copper ones of identical dimensions, but cost much more. Though debatable, many hi-fi enthusiasts believe silver wires improve sound quality.
Small devices, such as hearing aids and watches, commonly use silver oxide batteries due to their long life and high energy-to-weight ratio. Another usage is high-capacity silver-zinc and silver-cadmium batteries.
The principal sources of silver are the ores of copper, copper-nickel, lead, and lead-zinc obtained from Peru, Bolivia, Mexico, China, Australia, Chile, Poland and Serbia. Peru, Bolivia and Mexico have been mining silver since 1546, and are still major world producers. Top silver-producing mines are Cannington (Australia), Fresnillo (Mexico), San Cristobal (Bolivia), Antamina (Peru), Rudna (Poland), and Penasquito (Mexico). Top near-term mine development projects through 2015 are Pascua Lama (Chile), Navidad (Argentina), Jaunicipio (Mexico), Malku Khota (Bolivia), and Hackett River (Canada). In Central Asia, Tajikistan is known to have some of the largest silver deposits in the world.
Today, sulfur is produced from petroleum, natural gas, and related fossil resources, from which it is obtained mainly as hydrogen sulfide. The resulting hydrogen sulfide from this process, and also as it occurs in natural gas, is converted into elemental sulfur by the Claus process. Owing to the high sulfur content of the Athabasca Oil Sands, stockpiles of elemental sulfur from this process now exist throughout Alberta, Canada. Another way of storing sulfur is as a binder for concrete, the resulting product having many desirable properties (see sulfur concrete).
The world production of sulfur in 2011 amounted to 69 million tonnes (Mt), with more than 15 countries contributing more than 1 Mt each. Countries producing more than 5 Mt are China (9.6), US (8.8), Canada (7.1) and Russia (7.1). While the production has been slowly increasing from 1900 to 2010, the price was much less stable, especially in the 1980s and around 2010.
This bubble map shows the global distribution of sulphuric acid output in 2000 as a percentage of the top producer (China – 24,270,000 tonnes). This map is consistent with incomplete set of data too as long as the top producer is known. It resolves the accessibility issues faced by colour-coded maps that may not be properly rendered in old computer screens. Data was extracted on 16th June 2007. Source – http://unstats.un.org/unsd/cdb/cdb_source_xrxx.asp?source_code=6 Based on :Image:BlankMap-World.png
|Africa. excl.DR Congo||11.4%||13.8%||14.8%||19.0%||2.4%||0.8%||0.8%||0.7%||10.5%||11.8%||19.4%||14.7%||16.5%||19.1%||23.3%||15.5%||16.8%||15.5%||26.3%||44.3%|
Phenol: Phenol is also a recoverable byproduct of coal pyrolysis.
Chromium is mined as chromite (FeCr2O4) ore. About two-fifths of the chromite ores and concentrates in the world are produced in South Africa, while Kazakhstan, India, Russia, and Turkey are also substantial producers. Untapped chromite deposits are plentiful, but geographically concentrated in Kazakhstan and southern Africa.
RAW MATERIAL (used in several camera components)
|#||Producing Nation||103bbl/d (2006)||103bbl/d (2007)||103bbl/d (2008)||103bbl/d (2009)||Present Share|
|1||Saudi Arabia (OPEC)||10,665||10,234||10,782||9,760||11.8%|
|8||United Arab Emirates(OPEC)||2,945||2,948||3,046||2,795||3.4%|
|10||Venezuela (OPEC) 1||2,803||2,667||2,643||2,471||3.0%|
|13||Iraq (OPEC) 3||2,008||2,094||2,385||2,400||2.9%|
|41||Trinidad and Tobago||181||179||176||174||0.1%|
Tungsten is found in the minerals wolframite (iron–manganese tungstate, (Fe,Mn)WO4), scheelite (calcium tungstate, (CaWO4), ferberite (FeWO4) andhübnerite (MnWO4). China produced 51,000 tonnes of tungsten concentrate in 2009, which was 83% of the world output. In the prelude to WWII China’s production of tungsten played a role as China could use this leverage to demand material assistance from the US government. Most of the remaining production originated from Russia (2,500 t), Canada (1,964 t), Bolivia (1,023 t), Austria (900 t), Portugal (900 t), Thailand (600 t), Brazil (500 t), Peru (500 t) and Rwanda (500 t). Tungsten is also considered to be a conflict mineral due to the unethical mining practices observed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Rising prices in 2014 have enabled works to reopen the disused Hemerdon Bal tungsten-tine mine in Plymouth in the United Kingdom.
Most sources of cassiterite today are found in alluvial or placerdeposits containing the resistant weathered grains. The best sources of primary cassiterite are found in the tin mines of Bolivia, where it is found in hydrothermal veins. Rwanda has a nascent cassiterite mining industry. Fighting over cassiterite deposits (particularly inWalikale) is a major cause of the conflict waged in eastern parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This has led to cassiterite being considered a conflict mineral.
Cassiterite is a widespread minor constituent of igneous rocks. The Bolivian veins and the old exhausted workings of Cornwall, England, are concentrated in high temperature quartz veins and pegmatites associated with granitic intrusives. The veins commonly contain tourmaline, topaz, fluorite, apatite, wolframite, molybdenite, and arsenopyrite. The mineral occurs extensively in Cornwall as surface deposits on Bodmin Moor, for example, where there are extensive traces of an hydraulic mining method known as streaming. The current major tin production comes from placer or alluvial deposits in Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, the Maakhir region of Somalia, and Russia.Hydraulic mining methods are used to concentrate mined ore, a process which relies on the high specific gravity of the SnO2 ore, of about 7.0.
|1||People’s Republic of China||494.9||500.3||573.6||626.7||683.3||724.7||779.0|
|21||South Africa||9.1||8.3||7.5||8.5||6.7||7.1||7.2 est|
|37||United Arab Emirates||0.09||0.09||0.2||0.5||2.0||2.4||2.9 est|
|—||Others||30.7 (est.)||28.6 (est.)||23.3 (est.)||26.5 (est.)||29.9||29.5||28.4|
Silver halide – A halide is made out of two parts, a halogen atom, (produced by a mineral or salt) and a less or more electronegative atom, to create for example fluoride or chloride.
Amoniac – Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen.
Gelatin – obtained from various animal products.
Alum – To obtain alum from alunite crystals it is calcined and then exposed to the action of air for a considerable time. During this exposure it is kept continually moistened with water, so that it ultimately falls to a very fine powder
Formaldehyd- is produced industrially by the catalytic oxidation of methanol.
Aldehydes India 1247, Sector-15,Faridabad, Haryana, (India)
Lanxess Formalin Facility, Krefeld-Uerdingen, Germany
Glyoxal prepared by the gas-phase oxidation of ethylene glycol (used in the manufacture of polyester fibers for for example PET bottles)
Saponin (plant-derived from for example the maple tree)
Phenol (from petroleum)
Thymol (organic from thyme oil)