|List by the International Institute for Strategic Studies
World Military Balance 2015 (for 2014)
|List by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
2015 Fact Sheet (for 2014)
Mining Map – Layer 1
Chemicals and minerals:
Saudi Arabia, Afganistan, and:
|People’s Republic of China||5,200||3,500,000|
Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) is widely used in lithium ion battery cathodes. The material is composed of cobalt oxide layers in which the lithium is intercalated. During discharging the lithium intercalated between the layers is set free as lithium ion. Nickel-cadmium (NiCd) and nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries also contain significant amounts of cobalt; the cobalt improves the oxidation capabilities of nickel in the battery.
The main ores of cobalt are cobaltite, erythrite, glaucodot and skutterudite (see above), but most cobalt is obtained not by active mining of cobalt ores, but rather by reducing cobalt compounds that occur as by-products of nickel and copper mining activities. In 2005, the copper deposits in the Katanga Province (former Shaba province) of the Democratic Republic of the Congo were the top producer of cobalt with almost 40% world share
|Rank||Country/Region||2006 Copper production (tonnes)||2013 Copper production (tonnes)|
|13||Papua New Guinea||194,355|
Photography used 30.98% of the silver consumed in 1998 in the form of silver nitrate and silver halides. In 2001, 23.47% was used for photography, while 20.03% was used in jewelry, 38.51% for industrial uses, and only 3.5% for coins and medals. The use of silver in photography has rapidly declined, due to the lower demand for consumer color film from the advent of digital technology; since 2007, of the 907 million ounces of silver in supply, just 117.6 million ounces (13%) were consumed by the photographic sector, about 50% of the amount used in photography in 1998. By 2010, the supply had increased by about 10% to 1056.8 million ounces, of which 72.7 million ounces were used in the photographic sector, a decline of 38% compared with 2007.
Some electrical and electronic products use silver for its superior conductivity, even when tarnished. The primary example of this is in high quality RF connectors. The increase in conductivity is also taken advantage of in RF engineering at VHF and higher frequencies, where conductors often cannot be scaled by 6%, due to tuning requirements, e.g. cavity filters. As an additional example, printed circuits and RFID antennas can be made using silver paints, and computer keyboards use silver electrical contacts. Silver cadmium oxide is used in high-voltage contacts because it can withstand arcing.
Some manufacturers produce audio connector cables, speaker wires, and power cables using silver conductors, which have a 6% higher conductivity than ordinary copper ones of identical dimensions, but cost much more. Though debatable, many hi-fi enthusiasts believe silver wires improve sound quality.
Small devices, such as hearing aids and watches, commonly use silver oxide batteries due to their long life and high energy-to-weight ratio. Another usage is high-capacity silver-zinc and silver-cadmium batteries.
The principal sources of silver are the ores of copper, copper-nickel, lead, and lead-zinc obtained from Peru, Bolivia, Mexico, China, Australia, Chile, Poland and Serbia. Peru, Bolivia and Mexico have been mining silver since 1546, and are still major world producers. Top silver-producing mines are Cannington (Australia), Fresnillo (Mexico), San Cristobal (Bolivia), Antamina (Peru), Rudna (Poland), and Penasquito (Mexico). Top near-term mine development projects through 2015 are Pascua Lama (Chile), Navidad (Argentina), Jaunicipio (Mexico), Malku Khota (Bolivia), and Hackett River (Canada). In Central Asia, Tajikistan is known to have some of the largest silver deposits in the world.
Today, sulfur is produced from petroleum, natural gas, and related fossil resources, from which it is obtained mainly as hydrogen sulfide. The resulting hydrogen sulfide from this process, and also as it occurs in natural gas, is converted into elemental sulfur by the Claus process. Owing to the high sulfur content of the Athabasca Oil Sands, stockpiles of elemental sulfur from this process now exist throughout Alberta, Canada. Another way of storing sulfur is as a binder for concrete, the resulting product having many desirable properties (see sulfur concrete).
The world production of sulfur in 2011 amounted to 69 million tonnes (Mt), with more than 15 countries contributing more than 1 Mt each. Countries producing more than 5 Mt are China (9.6), US (8.8), Canada (7.1) and Russia (7.1). While the production has been slowly increasing from 1900 to 2010, the price was much less stable, especially in the 1980s and around 2010.
This bubble map shows the global distribution of sulphuric acid output in 2000 as a percentage of the top producer (China – 24,270,000 tonnes). This map is consistent with incomplete set of data too as long as the top producer is known. It resolves the accessibility issues faced by colour-coded maps that may not be properly rendered in old computer screens. Data was extracted on 16th June 2007. Source – http://unstats.un.org/unsd/cdb/cdb_source_xrxx.asp?source_code=6 Based on :Image:BlankMap-World.png
|Africa. excl.DR Congo||11.4%||13.8%||14.8%||19.0%||2.4%||0.8%||0.8%||0.7%||10.5%||11.8%||19.4%||14.7%||16.5%||19.1%||23.3%||15.5%||16.8%||15.5%||26.3%||44.3%|
Phenol: Phenol is also a recoverable byproduct of coal pyrolysis.
Chromium is mined as chromite (FeCr2O4) ore. About two-fifths of the chromite ores and concentrates in the world are produced in South Africa, while Kazakhstan, India, Russia, and Turkey are also substantial producers. Untapped chromite deposits are plentiful, but geographically concentrated in Kazakhstan and southern Africa.
RAW MATERIAL (used in several camera components)
|#||Producing Nation||103bbl/d (2006)||103bbl/d (2007)||103bbl/d (2008)||103bbl/d (2009)||Present Share|
|1||Saudi Arabia (OPEC)||10,665||10,234||10,782||9,760||11.8%|
|8||United Arab Emirates(OPEC)||2,945||2,948||3,046||2,795||3.4%|
|10||Venezuela (OPEC) 1||2,803||2,667||2,643||2,471||3.0%|
|13||Iraq (OPEC) 3||2,008||2,094||2,385||2,400||2.9%|
|41||Trinidad and Tobago||181||179||176||174||0.1%|
Tungsten is found in the minerals wolframite (iron–manganese tungstate, (Fe,Mn)WO4), scheelite (calcium tungstate, (CaWO4), ferberite (FeWO4) andhübnerite (MnWO4). China produced 51,000 tonnes of tungsten concentrate in 2009, which was 83% of the world output. In the prelude to WWII China’s production of tungsten played a role as China could use this leverage to demand material assistance from the US government. Most of the remaining production originated from Russia (2,500 t), Canada (1,964 t), Bolivia (1,023 t), Austria (900 t), Portugal (900 t), Thailand (600 t), Brazil (500 t), Peru (500 t) and Rwanda (500 t). Tungsten is also considered to be a conflict mineral due to the unethical mining practices observed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Rising prices in 2014 have enabled works to reopen the disused Hemerdon Bal tungsten-tine mine in Plymouth in the United Kingdom.
Most sources of cassiterite today are found in alluvial or placerdeposits containing the resistant weathered grains. The best sources of primary cassiterite are found in the tin mines of Bolivia, where it is found in hydrothermal veins. Rwanda has a nascent cassiterite mining industry. Fighting over cassiterite deposits (particularly inWalikale) is a major cause of the conflict waged in eastern parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This has led to cassiterite being considered a conflict mineral.
Cassiterite is a widespread minor constituent of igneous rocks. The Bolivian veins and the old exhausted workings of Cornwall, England, are concentrated in high temperature quartz veins and pegmatites associated with granitic intrusives. The veins commonly contain tourmaline, topaz, fluorite, apatite, wolframite, molybdenite, and arsenopyrite. The mineral occurs extensively in Cornwall as surface deposits on Bodmin Moor, for example, where there are extensive traces of an hydraulic mining method known as streaming. The current major tin production comes from placer or alluvial deposits in Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, the Maakhir region of Somalia, and Russia.Hydraulic mining methods are used to concentrate mined ore, a process which relies on the high specific gravity of the SnO2 ore, of about 7.0.
|1||People’s Republic of China||494.9||500.3||573.6||626.7||683.3||724.7||779.0|
|21||South Africa||9.1||8.3||7.5||8.5||6.7||7.1||7.2 est|
|37||United Arab Emirates||0.09||0.09||0.2||0.5||2.0||2.4||2.9 est|
|—||Others||30.7 (est.)||28.6 (est.)||23.3 (est.)||26.5 (est.)||29.9||29.5||28.4|
Silver halide – A halide is made out of two parts, a halogen atom, (produced by a mineral or salt) and a less or more electronegative atom, to create for example fluoride or chloride.
Amoniac – Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen.
Gelatin – obtained from various animal products.
Alum – To obtain alum from alunite crystals it is calcined and then exposed to the action of air for a considerable time. During this exposure it is kept continually moistened with water, so that it ultimately falls to a very fine powder
Formaldehyd- is produced industrially by the catalytic oxidation of methanol.
Aldehydes India 1247, Sector-15,Faridabad, Haryana, (India)
Lanxess Formalin Facility, Krefeld-Uerdingen, Germany
Glyoxal prepared by the gas-phase oxidation of ethylene glycol (used in the manufacture of polyester fibers for for example PET bottles)
Saponin (plant-derived from for example the maple tree)
Phenol (from petroleum)
Thymol (organic from thyme oil)
Sacred waste or holy trash refers to the afterlife of things employed within religious, spiritual, and civil contexts that are then recycled, upcycled, or discarded (Anderson 2010: 35). This vernacular concept is beginning to take root in religious studies and literary studies, both of which are fields that have recently started to encourage research on ecology, environmentalism, and waste in relationship to religion and spirituality. Found within a variety of contexts, examples of sacred waste include leftover communion elements in Christian traditions; the remains of prasad in Hindu devotional activities; Torahs no longer in circulation in Jewish communities; faded icons found in the home shrines of Eastern Orthodox believers; and a wide variety of other items used by practitioners of faith traditions. However, sacred waste is not limited to institutional and vernacular forms of religion. Public items that are associated with forms of national pride, such as flags and emblems, constructed spaces, and land are often imbued with a sense of symbolic identity. Thus the retirement or destruction of such entities can cause public outcry if the items are not removed or disposed of in a manner that acknowledges socio-political, religious, national, or ethnic pride. Sacred waste is made up of more than the composite of its material elements because of its close proximity to and association with holiness or sacredness, the essence of which can become infused within or attached to the items themselves. Often, the spiritual dimension of holy things engenders deep emotional feelings on the part of practitioners, creating complex dilemmas that call into question the boundaries of holiness, sacridity and the agency of both the person and the object being discarded.
What or who defines the sacred items that ultimately become refuse? This question is not new– indeed, it harkens back to Mary Douglas’ work on purity and emic and etic understandings of sacredness (Douglas 1966). The subjective and culturally specific nature of belief means that sacred trash can take many different forms, for even everyday items can be considered sacred or holy by the discarder. In this way, sacred trash becomes a means by which individuals can authenticate their faith, spirituality, or rituals, often challenging institutional, homogeneous understandings of holiness and authority. These negotiations have political implications, highlighting the loci of power within traditional forms of religion and how new, consumer-driven forms of faith and spirituality are destabilizing formal institutions of religious power. This is best seen in the hybrid and “syncretistic” forms of Catholicism that meld together religious and secular things, creating an amalgamated form of waste that possesses a complex religious and emotional nature, such as votive candles, prayer cards, family photos, and incense. For practitioners, the remains of these items are sacred and, thus, should be disposed of or recycled in an appropriate manner that adheres to a personal or collective understanding of what is proper and legitimate theologically, culturally, and historically. However, in institutional religious settings, this type of garbage may not be view as sacred, leading to a fissure between vernacular folk piety and the authoritative hierarchy. In this manner, trashing functions as heresy and subversion, and a catalyst for socio-religious change. An example of the subversive nature of sacred trash outside of institutional religion can be seen at the annual Burning Man event in northern Nevada. There a symbolic effigy is reduced to ash, to sacred waste, and through the creation of holy refuse, attendees express their cultural ideals and desire to move beyond normative understandings of civil engagement.
The very idea of sacred waste also brings up ethical issues that are found in other areas of discard studies; namely, how does one properly dispose of used items in moral and ethical ways that concomitantly address religious obligations and environmental concerns? Implicit within this question are issues of socio-religious identity, the relationship between institutional hierarchy and vernacular practices, and negotiation of spiritual and physical boundaries. These dilemmas take on more salient concerns with the centrality of new technologies, such as the Internet marketplace and digital printers, through which consumers can and do purchase and produce goods that are used in religious rituals, spiritual acts, and, often, everyday life events. This type of mediated consumption is seen in Eastern Orthodoxy in the United States, where practitioners often print out paper icons on their home laser printers. These images become part of the circulation of the material holy in Orthodox economies until such time as they begin to fade and decay. The inevitable disintegration of paper icons means that they must be preserved, burned, or buried in accordance with the religious laws of the group… https://www.academia.edu/17969600/Sacred_Waste
Major producers of aluminum in 2012/ 2013 (USGS figures).
(thousands of tonnes)
|1||People’s Republic of China||21,500|
|5||United Arab Emirates||1,800|
Major producers of Cement in 2013:
|1||People’s Republic of China||2,300|
Major producers of Potash in 2013:
Major producers of Gold in 2012:
Major producers of Zinc in 2011:
Major producers of Diamonds in 2011:
Major producers of Magnese in 2011:
Major producers of Cobalt in 2011:
Major producers of Gypsum by country in 2009:
|Country||World Production, By Country (Thousand metric tons)|
|3||Iran, Islamic Republic Of||12,000|
Major producers of Silver by country in 2012:
Mine production: 162.2 million ounces
Mine production: 117 million ounces
Mine production: 111.3 million ounces
Mine production: 56.9 million ounces
Mine production: 45 million ounces
Mine production: 41.2 million ounces
Mine production: 39.7 million ounces
Mine production: 37 million ounces
Mine production: 32.6 million ounces
Mine production: 24.1 million ounces
Paper Production worldwide in 2010/2011:
|Country||Production in 2011
|Production in 2010
Map of renewable water resources based on country:
A climate ethics is inextricably linked to a social and economic ethics
Can we establish a climate ethics when we can’t even establish a human ethics?
What is the total impact of an increasingly unsustainable expansion of global consumerism?
What does fairness mean in an era of warming?
Allen, J. (2008) Claiming connections: a distant world of sweatshops. In Barnett, C, Robinson, J and Rose, G. (eds) Geographies of Globalization: Living in a Demanding World London: Sage: 7-54
Barnett, C. Cloke, P. Clarke, N. & Malpass, A. (2011) Globalising Responsibility. Oxford: Blackwell
Barrientos, S. (2000) Globalisation and ethical trade. Journal of International Development 12.4: 559-70
Boyd, A. (ed) (2012) Beautiful trouble: a toolbox for revolution. New York: O/R Books [link]
Castree, N. (2001) Commodity fetishism, geographical imaginations and imaginative geographies. Environment and Planning A, 33: 1519-1525
Clarke, N. (2008) From ethical consumerism to political consumption. Geography compass 2(6): 1870-1884
Cook, I. & Woodyer, T. (2012) Lives of things. in Sheppard, E., Barnes, T. & Peck, J. (eds) The new companion to economic geography. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell: 226-241
Crewe, L. (2004) A thread lost in an endless labyrinth: unraveling fashion’s commodity chains. in Hughes, A. and Reimer, S. (eds) Geographies of commodity chains London Routledge: 195 – 214
Darts, D. (2004) Visual culture jam: art, pedagogy and creative resistance. Studies in Art Education 45(4): 313-327 [download]
Foster, R. (2006) Tracking globalization: commodities and value in motion. Tilley, C., Keane, W., Kuchler, S., Rowlands, M. & Spyer, P. (eds) Handbook of material culture. London: Sage: 285-302 [download here]
Freire, Paulo Pedagogy of the Oppressed
Hughes A. (2005) Corporate strategy and the management of ethical trade: The case of the UK food and clothing retailers. Environment and Planning A 37(7): 1145-1163
Hughes, A. (2007) Geographies of exchange and circulation: flows and networks of knowledgable capitalism. Progress in Human Geography 31(4): 527-535
Hughes, A. & Ruwanpura, K. (2013) Evaluating Ethical Workplace Standards: Corporate and Public Sector Workwear from Karachi, Pakistan. NHS Scotland Procurement (http://www.nhsscotlandprocurement.scot.nhs.uk/media/8856/dr_alex_hughes_pakistan_research_report_may_16th_2013.pdf last accessed 22 May 2014)
Hughes, A. & Reimer, S. (2004) Geographies of commodity chains. London: Routledge
Johns, R. & Vural, L. (2000) Class, geography and the consumerist turn: UNITE and the Stop Sweatshops Campaign. Environment and Planning A, 23: 1193-1213
Karliner, Joshua The Corporate Planet: Ecology and Politics in the Age of Globalization (Sierra Club Books, 1997) on the impacts of corporate globalization.
Lesley, D. & Reimer, S. (1999) Spatialising commodity chains Progress in Human Geography
Lyne, M. Nielson, D.L. and Tierney, M.J. (2009) Controlling Coalitions: Social Lending at the Multilateral Development Banks”, The Review of International Organizations, 4:407-33
Lyon, Sarah & Moberg, Mark (2010) Fair Trade and Social Justice: Global Ethnographies, NYU Press
Meyer, R. (2007) “What’s Wrong with Exploitation?”, Journal of Applied Philosophy, 24: 137-50
Mendoza, R. U. (2003) “The Multilateral Trade Regime: A Global Public Good for All?”, in Providing Global Public Goods: Managing Globalization, New York: Oxford University Press
McIntyre, R. & Ramstad, Y. (2011) Not only Nike’s doing it: sweating and the contemporary labour market. in Welters. L. & Lillethun, A. (eds) The Fashion Reader (2nd edition), Oxford: Berg, 317-322
Micheletti, M. & Stolle, D. (2007) Mobilizing consumers to take responsibility for global social justice. Annals, AAPSS 611 (May): 157-175
Miller, D. (1987) “Exploitation in the Market”, in A. Reeve (ed.) Modern Theories of Exploitation, London, Sage Publications.
Salzinger, L. (2000) Manufacturing sexual subjects: harassment, desire and discipline on a maquiladora shopfloor Ethnography 1(1): 67-92
Sandlin, J. & Callahan, J. (2009) Deviance, dissonance & détournement: culture jammers’ use of emotion in consumer resistance. Journal of consumer culture 9(1): 79-115
Sandlin, J. & Milam, J. (2008) ‘Mixing pop culture and politics’: culture jamming and anti-consumption activism as critical public pedagogy. Curriculum inquiry 38(3): 323-50
Silvey, R. (2004) A wrench in the global works: anti-sweatshop activism on campus. Antipode
Snyder, R.L. (2008) Fugitive denim: a moving story of people and pants in the borderless world of global trade. London: Norton & Co [read about this here]
The Vacuum Cleaner (2007) How to play, prank and subvert the system. in Trapese Collective (eds) Do it yourself: a handbook for changing our world. London: Pluto, p.171-186 [link for downloading]
Trapese Collective (2007) Introduction: do it yourself. in their (eds) Do it yourself: a handbook for changing our world. London: Pluto, 1-10 [link for downloading]
Verson, J. (2007) Why we need cultural activism. in Trapese Collective (eds) Do it yourself: a handbook for changing our world. London: Pluto, 171-186 [link for downloading]
Wright, M. (1997) Crossing the factory frontier – gender, power and place in the Mexican maquiladora. Antipode 29(3): 278-302
Wright, M. (1999) The politics of relocation: gender, nationality and value in a Mexican maquiladora. Environment and Planning A 31: 1601-1617